Takshashila became a noted centre of learning at least several centuries BCE, and continued to attract students from around the old world until the destruction of the city in the 5th century.
In 1980, Takshashila was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site At its height, it has been suggested that Takshashila exerted a sort of “Intellectual Suzerainty” over other centres of learning in India, and its primary concern was not with elementary, but higher education. Generally, a student entered Takshashila at the age of sixteen.
The Vedas and the Eighteen Shilpas or Arts, which included skills such as archery, hunting, and elephant lore, were taught, in addition to its law school, medical school, and school of military science.
Students came to Takshashila from far-off places like Kashi, Koshala and Magadha, in spite of the long and arduous journey they had to undertake, on account of the excellence of the learned teachers there, all recognized as authorities in their respective subjects.
Famous students and teachers of Takshashila :
Takshashila is perhaps best known because of its association with Chanakya, also known as Kautilya, the strategist who guided Chandragupta Maurya and assisted in the founding of the Mauryan empire. The Arthashastra (Sanskrit for The knowledge of Economics) of Chanakya, is said to have been composed in Takshashila itself.
The Ayurvedic healer Charaka also studied at Taxila. He also started teaching at Takshashila in the later period. The ancient grammarian Panini, who codified the rules that would define Classical Sanskrit, has also been part of the community at Takshashila.